African American Rights

Civil Rights Movement

B rave             Brown v. Board of Education, 1954

M artin           Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955

L eads            Little Rock Crisis, 1957

G reen            Greensboro sit-in, 1960

F reedom       Freedom Riders, 1961

J unkies         James Meredith, 1962

U ntil              University of Alabama, 1962

B irmingham   Birmingham March, 1963

M archers      March on Washington, 1963

C laim            Civil Rights Act of 1964

V ictory          Voting Rights Act of 1965

A gainst          Affirmative Action

B igoted         Black Power (Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael, Black Panthers)

F reaks           Forced busing, 1971

 

Causes:

-WWII creates a broader view of life, Great Migrations

-development of a black middle class = education = increasing awareness of inequality

-TV portrays a way of life that alienates minorities

  • Early 20th Century

Booker T. Washington, accommodation – “Atlanta Compromise Speech”, 1986

  • Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896: ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities were separate but equal
  • W. E. B. Du Bois, Niagara Movement: immediate rights for African Americans
  • Migration northward during and after WWI: Race riots  (Red Summer, 1919)
  • NAACP founded in 1908
  • African American Civil Rights – 1940s and 1950s
    • A. Philip Randolph during WWII: March on Washington Movement, FEPC
    • Truman: To Secure These Rights desegregation of Armed Forces (1948)
    • Jackie Robinson, Brooklyn Dodgers
    • Brown v. Board of Education, 1954: reverses Plessy v Ferguson
      • Causes massive resistance among those who did not want segregation
      • Shuttleworth vs. Birmingham Board of Education rules pupil placement tests constitutional
      • Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-56
      • Martin Luther King, Jr., Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC)
      • Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957
      • Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 (deals with voting rights)
      • Greensboro sit-in, 1960

 

Expanding Protests: 1960s

-JFK vaguely sympathetic, but afraid to act

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee keeps protests alive through sit-ins (collegeàhigh schoolàmiddle schoolàelementary school: the younger they get, the douchier you look)

Congress of Racial Equality begins “freedom rides” trying to force segregation of bus stations

SCLC creates education programs to help blacks challenge segregation

-peace marshals sent to help James Meredith attend UMiss

-MLKJr launches a series of nonviolent protests in Birmingham, which were brutally shut down by PC “Bull” Connor

-“I have a dream”

The Battle for Voting Rights

“Freedom summer” campaign for voting rights evokes violent response from whites. Also produces Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party to challenge the regular Party’s right to seats. Allowed to observe

Civil Rights Act of 1965/Voting Rights Act passed after Selma, Alabama, which provides federal protection for blacks when they vote

The Changing Movement (at around ’68)

De Jure à De Facto

South à North

Nonviolent à rebellion

Urban Rebellion

Watts Riot in LA sparks a week of violence, showing just how much AA resented being pushed around

Black Power

-A move away from cooperation and into distinction, instilling racial role, traditions, etc. splits movement between radicals (Black Panthers) and moderates:

-promise to defend rights “through the barrel of a gun”

Malcolm X

-Nation of Islam teaches him the error of drugs and pimping. Nation of Islam teaches um’saalem to take responsibility for themselves.

-Preaches that blacks have the right to defend themselves by any means necessary

-“do not go into a white store”: wants communities within communities instead of integration

Solutions:

Civil Rights Act of ‘68/Fair Housing Act

-Forced Busing

-“affirmative action”

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2 responses to “African American Rights

  1. Pingback: Map of the US History Guide | Surviving High School: A Hypocrat in a Perpetual State of Procrastination·

  2. Pingback: The Battle For Equality | Surviving High School: A Hypocrat in a Perpetual State of Procrastination·

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