WWI

  • American neutrality at the beginning of the war
  • Causes of American entry into the war:
    • German attacks on neutral or civilian shipping:
    • Lusitania (1915), Sussex ultimatum (1916)
    • Zimmerman Note
    • Unrestricted submarine warfare (1917): most important reason for U.S. entry into war
  • Wilsonian idealism to sell the war
    • Aims: “make the world safe for democracy”; “a war to end all wars”; “peace without victory” (to satisfy the pacifists and interventionists)
    • Creel Committee: propaganda organization to sell the war to Americans
  • 14 Points: plan to end WWI – very idealistic and progressive
  • Mobilization
    • War Industries Board (led by Bernard Baruch): coordinate use of natural resources with military
    • Conscription:
    • Bond drives
    • Hoover and voluntary compliance:
  • Dissent
    • Many strikes due to high inflation during the war
    • Espionage Act (1918) and Sedition Act used to crack down on opposition to war
      • IWW “Wobblies” were major target of gov’t
      • Schenck v. U.S.: upheld Espionage Act: Clear and present danger”
  • WWI represented largest attack on civil liberties in U.S. history
  • Versailles Treaty (1919) failed to include most of Wilson’s 14 Points; Senate doesn’t ratify League of Nations (Wilson’s biggest failure)
    • 19th ratified: Women earn right to vote (played a major role in the war effort)
    • Prohibition (sacrifice during war made drinking alcohol unpatriotic)
    • “Great Migration”: millions of African Americans migrate to north out of the south.
      • In the advent of race riots, Marcus Garvey creates Black Nationalism
        • Encourages them to take pride in achievements
        • Reject assimilation
        • United Negro Improvement Association
        • Urge to return to Liberia
    • Red Summer”: race riots occur when returning white veterans compete with blacks for jobs.
    • Inflation during war triggers huge strikes after war: Seattle, Boston Police, steel industry
    • “Red Scare” as a result of Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and radicalism inU.S. (fear of communism, anarchy, radical labor unions, etc.) – Palmer Raids
      • Sacco and Vanzetti—violation of rights based on discrimination
    • Increased nativism (results in immigration acts of 1921 and 1924); much anti-German sentiment during the war
    • Farmers experience prosperity during war; when Europe recovers, farmers suffer depression
    • U.S. emerges as world’s #1 creditor nation; growth leads way to economy of “Roaring 20s”
    • Democrats and Wilson suffer major defeat in 1920 (Harding talks of “normalcy”)
      • Americans are tired of Progressivism and are sick of sacrifice.
WWI’s Impact on American Society

1920s emerge as most conservative political era of the 20th century

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2 responses to “WWI

  1. Pingback: Map of the US History Guide | Surviving High School: A Hypocrat in a Perpetual State of Procrastination·

  2. Pingback: Imperialist America | Surviving High School: A Hypocrat in a Perpetual State of Procrastination·

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