Internationalism –> Isolationism

Washington Conference of 1921:

-Five Power Pact

-Four Power Pact

-Nine Power Pact

Kellog-Briand Pact: outlaws war as a “national policy instrument”

Dawes Act creates a triangle trade of money to Germany, who pays France, who buys from the US.

Clark Memorandum, 1928—renounces intervention of U.S. in foreign countries; lays foundation for Good Neighbor Policy of the 1930s.

-This abandons military occupation of L America, but also expands economically


Rise of Isolationism

Wilsonian internationalists are disillusioned by LoN and US does not join.

-WWI was engineered

– Refuse to sign Versailles Treaty

  • Economic isolationism
    • Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922
    • Great Depression: Smoot-Hawley Tariff of 1930
    • Refuse to forgive European debts (although Dawes Plan does help until 1929)

FDR kills London Economic Conference, 1933


  • Political isolationism in 1930s
    • Hoover-Stimson Doctrine: Does not recognize Japanese conquest of Manchuria
    • Nye Committee, 1934
    • Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 (FDR unable to aggressively oppose dictators)
      • Meanwhile: Italy invades Ethiopia, Spanish Civil War, Germany remilitarizes
      • Mandatory arms embargo against victim and aggressor in any military conflict
      • Cash and carry policy for all nonaggressive nations, which later dissolves into Lend-lease
    • Americans react negatively to FDRs “Quarantine Speech” of 1937
    • Americans want U.S. out of China after Panay incident
    • U.S. remains neutral after Germany invades Poland in Sept. 1939

America First Committee (incl. Charles Lindbergh) urges U.S. neutrality

Pearl Harbor solidifies US commitment to WWII


Major Battles:

  • Midway, 1942
  • “Operation Torch” in North Africa, 1943
  • Stalingrad, 1942-43:
  • D-Day (invasion of Normandy), 1944
  • Battle of the Bulge, 1944
  • Iwo Jima, Okinawa, 1945

bomb: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Aug. 1945


  • During WWII
    • Ends the Great Depression (New Deal still had 16% unemployment, even in best of times)
    • Massive mobilization: Selective Service System, OWM, OPA
    • Women join Armed Forces (WACs, WAVES, WAFs) and industry (“Rosie the Riveter”)
    • African Americans: A. Philip Randolph, March on Washington Movement, FEPC
    • Mexican immigration through Bracero Program
    • Japanese Internment
    • Race riots against blacks in northern cities; Zoot Suit Riots in L.A.
    • Union issues: War Labor Board; John L. Lewis; Smith-Connolly Act
    • Movement from the Northeast into the Sunbelt (South and Southwest)
    • 405,000 Americans dead; minimal damage to U.S. property (unlike devastated Europe & Japan)
    • After WWII
      • U.S. produces ½ of world’s goods; leads to the “Affluent Society”; G.I. Bill of Rights
      • U.S. emerges as leader of the free world and as world’s only atomic power (until 1949)
      • International financial structure: United Nations, IMF, World Bank
      • Smith Act of 1940  (leads to persecution of communists after the war)
      • Union strikes in 1946 leads to Taft-Hartley Act of 1947

Post-World War II: continues U.S. transition to globalism

Bretton Woods Conference,1944, creation of IMF (International Monetary Fund)

San Francisco Conference, 1945—creation of United Nations Charter

[Move onto the Cold War Era ==>]


2 responses to “WWII

  1. Pingback: Map of the US History Guide | Surviving High School: A Hypocrat in a Perpetual State of Procrastination·

  2. Pingback: The Great Depression and the New Deal | Surviving High School: A Hypocrat in a Perpetual State of Procrastination·

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